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In this movie, you can compare the motions of the two bacteria for yourself:

The remarkable engineering of these bacteria are probably a major reason spirochetes have been such successful pathogens in humans and other animals. Syphilis and Lyme Disease are better at penetrating our bodies than almost any other organisms. Spirochetes cross barriers that are impenetrable to almost anything else, including basement membranes and the linings of organs like intestines called endothelium that function to keep the kajillions of bacteria in your gut out of the rest of your body. In humans, syphilis and Lyme Disease bacteria easily penetrate the normally sacrosanct blood-brain barrier to infect the central nervous system. Syphilis can invade the placenta and infect an unborn child.

This extraordinary ability is reflected in the symptoms of these brutal diseases. The characteristic bullseye rash of Lyme disease seems to be the result of their penetrative ability, as the spirochetes burrow into the skin and soft tissue of their new host and trigger a destructive inflammatory response radiating from the bite that delivered them. Lyme Disease and syphilis sufferers -- the latter of which have been legion among the great and small in human history, including many people today -- may experience damage to multiple organs, joints, and the brain and nervous system as a result of the same damaging inflammation. In syphilis, the spirochetes seem to be amazingly good and fast at this, managing to find their way into blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, and testes in laboratory animals in less than 48 hours. For an organism just a dozen or so micrometers long, which must penetrate countless tough membranes evolved to keep them out with no obvious means of propulsion -- which can, in fact, move only by engaging its whole body in a beautiful but lethal shimmy -- two days from tick to testis ain't bad.


Harman M., Vig D., Radolf J. Wolgemuth C. (2013). Viscous Dynamics of Lyme Disease and Syphilis Spirochetes Reveal Flagellar Torque and Drag, Biophysical Journal, 105 (10) 2273-2280. DOI: Cheap Sale Cheapest DUNGAREES Dungarees Supertrash Low Shipping Online dCXJ7

Charon N.W., Cockburn A., Li C., Liu J., Miller K.A., Miller M.R., Motaleb M.A. Wolgemuth C.W. (2012). The Unique Paradigm of Spirochete Motility and Chemotaxis, Annual Review of Microbiology, 66 (1) 349-370. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-092611-150145

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The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

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FIG. 1.

preferentially binds to marginal cells of artificial epithelial wounds and increases their migration. Scratch wounds were created to confluent HaCaT cell cultures, and cells were added to the culture medium (260 bacteria per cell) for different time periods. Epifluorescence of cultures detected with anti- antibody after 6 h (A), 24 h (B) and 48 h (C). Light microscopic images of wounds at 48 h in the presence of TGF-β indicate faster closure of the epithelial wound sheets in -treated cultures than in control cultures (D).

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FIG. 2.

Intracellular colocalizes with lysosomal membrane structures in cells at the leading edge of the epithelial sheets. Scratched HaCaT cell cultures treated for 48 h with (ATCC 25586; 260 bacteria per cell) were simultaneously immunostained for and lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1, followed by two fluorescent secondary antibodies, Alexa-488 and Alexa-546, respectively. Samples were analyzed by laser confocal microscopy, and optical z-axis sections were recorded. One optical section from the basal, mid-, and apical regions of the cells were presented together. Red channel (A and B) corresponding to Alexa-546 fluorescence reveals invasion, and green channel (C), corresponding to Alexa-488 fluorescence, reveals LAMP-1 expression. Red and green images were merged into an RGB file (D) showing colocalization (yellow/orange) of the two signals.

Bacterial infection may modulate the rate of cell proliferation and migration. Bacteria may also modify the effects of cytokines in infected tissue ( Satin miniskirt Miu Miu Buy Cheap Classic Free Shipping Best Seller Best Buy Reliable X7nZWtJ
). We studied the effect of F. nucleatum on the rate of closure of the epithelial wound. In the presence of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), the closure of the wounds was considerably faster in F. nucleatum -treated cultures (Fig. 1D ). Most sites along the migrating fronts fused in cultures treated with the bacteria by 48 h, while the wounds remained open in the control cultures. In the absence of transforming growth factor β, F. nucleatum did not accelerate reepithelialization. There was no morphological indication of cell death in the infected epithelial cells.

F. nucleatum alters epithelial cell signaling. The behavior of infected cells depends on both the direct toxic effects of the bacteria and the cell signaling pathways they turn on. To get an overview of the signaling profile of infected cells, HaCaT cells were exposed to F. nucleatum for 120 min and the cell extracts were analyzed for levels of 78 different protein kinases, utilizing the standardized Kinetworks immunoblotting system. Forty-six known kinases could be detected in the control and bacterium-treated cells. Compared to untreated cultures, F. nucleatum increased levels of 12 kinases and decreased levels of 2 kinases by 50% or more. Many of these kinases are involved in cell proliferation and cell survival signaling (Table 2 ). A particularly strong increase (about sevenfold) was observed in the cellular levels of DNA-dependent protein kinase, a kinase involved in the detection and repair of damaged DNA ( 15 ). An increase in levels of death-associated protein kinase 1 ( 62 ) and protein kinase CK-2, an enzyme involved in cell survival ( 42 , Mens Tepphar Slim Jeans Diesel Best Place For Sale vKlN1EWq
), was observed. Levels of protein kinase C epsilon and cyclin-dependent kinases 7 and 9 were also increased in epithelial cells by F. nucleatum . Further, the bacteria stimulated levels of Etk/Bmx, S6 kinase p70, and RhoA kinase, enzymes connected to control of cell migration ( 1 , 5 , 8 , 23 , 55 , 56 ). Levels of germinal center kinase, related to stress response ( 40 ), and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, involved in cell proliferation ( 2 ), were decreased by the F. nucleatum challenge. All in all these results indicate that F. nucleatum exerts multiple effects on epithelial cells involving DNA damage and cell activation. As a result, signaling for cell survival, cell proliferation, and cell migration is stimulated in infected cells.

Besides packing in that beastly lens, the Nikon Coolpix P1000 also uses an electronic viewfinder with a 2.3 million OLED, paired with a 3.2-inch tilting TFT LCD screen. That larger body allows the camera to accommodate a control ring on the lens, which you can assign a function to, like aperture. Zoom, however, is controlled more like a compact camera than a DLSR, with a toggle by the shutter release or with buttons on the lens. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are also built-in.

If Nikon is trying to turn heads with cameras with unheard of features, the P1000 will likely do the trick. The camera not only can shoot what a smartphone can’t, but it easily beats most mega-zoom cameras on the market. The 125x zoom is the longest zoom on a compact camera yet — and for that matter, finding a DSLR lens over 1000mm is tough. The 125x zoom may be a bit more niche than the average superzoom, with the extreme zoom coming in handy for birdwatching, astrophotography, and the like. (That unheard of zoom comes on the tail end of Nikon’s year-long 100th-anniversary celebration , which also included announcements like the Skinny Joggers In Grey Marl Grey marl Asos Discount Factory Outlet Clearance Pre Order F4AWs

While we previewed the P1000 at a briefing, we have yet to put that 125x zoom through a real test. We know that longer zoom ranges can lose image quality at the longer end, though the Nikon-supplied samples seem to hold up for what we’d expect from a camera with a compact sensor. Design wise, the camera bears the attributes of a Nikon DSLR, video camcorder, and point-and-shoot. It has the weight, feel, and physical controls and buttons of a entry-level Nikon DSLR, but the onscreen menu controls are taken from a Coolpix point-and-shoot. The grip is quite substantial, giving us a firm grip on the camera. We do wish it had focus and zoom rings, but Nikon did include two zoom toggles: a fast zoom switch on the lens, and a more precise zoom control near the shutter button.

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Les Shu / Digital Trends

Despite the advanced functions, this is very much a point-and-shoot camera. That’s not to say it can’t capture great images and videos, but even with that incredibly long lens, advanced-level photographers may find the small sensor unappealing (there’s always Sony’s White Weft Skinny Jean Kenneth Cole Visa Payment Cheap Online MHBHbgg4Td
for those users). Long-zoom cameras are handy for travel photography, but the P1000 is too cumbersome. There could be an interesting potential with video, but until we get to use it in the field, we’ll reserve judgment.

The P1000 expands the crazy zoom length of the 83x superzoom Nikon Coolpix P900 . But because the Nikon P1000 is much larger and more expensive than the earlier model, the older P900 — a very popular camera, Nikon says — isn’t being discontinued. Nikon sees different audiences for both cameras, but it acknowledges that the P1000 will be a very niche product.

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Hi, gang – here’s another in my new series of Photoshop’s Buried Treasure – this one is a quick, one-click mega zoom that nottakes you to a tight zoom right where you want it, it instantly returns you to the tool you were last using. Really handy stuff (and it’s not the trick you were thinking).

Photoshop’s Buried Treasure

Hope you found that helpful!

Here’s wishing you an awesome Tuesday!


P.S. Looking forward to meeting everybody up here for my Lightroom seminar here in Indianapolis today!

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Scott Kelby

Scott is the President of KelbyOne, an online educational community for Photographers, Photoshop and Lightroom users. He's editor and publisher of Photoshop User Magazine, Conference Technical Chair for the Photoshop World Conference, and the author of a string of bestselling Photoshop, Lightroom, and photography books.

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Scott is a photographer, award-winning author and the original "Photoshop Guy" as well as the CEO of KelbyOne, an online educational community for Photographers, Photoshop and Lightroom users.


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Another from my “The World on White Seamless” series - I know I don’t have to tell you but it’s the Leaning Tower of Pisa (which is not the Tower of Pizza which was the name I thought it was as s child). #italy #pisa #leaningtowerofpisa #europe #travel #travelphotography #instatravel #travelblogger #tourist #vacation #white #statue #monument
Another from my “The World on White Seamless” series - I know I don’t have to tell you but it’s the Leaning Tower of Pisa (which is not the Tower of Pizza which was the name I thought it was as s child). #italy #pisa #leaningtowerofpisa #europe #travel #travelphotography #instatravel #travelblogger #tourist #vacation #white #statue #monument

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